Saturday, August 14, 2010

Paracetamol Testing

Paracetamol Testing

Acetaminophen, or paracetamol or tylenol, is an analgesic drug which is commonly used as a fever and headache reliever. In fact this medicine is available over-the-counter which means there's no need for doctor's prescription, and I think, the safest. Just as the commercial said promoting their product, "kahit walang laman ang tiyan" which means you can take it up anytime. But of course, anything in excess is not good. Even the safest medicine can cause toxicity if abused. So we must be careful of the dosage we take up or if not sure, consult a doctor. Again, as the commercial said, "Ingat"
Typically, paracetamol is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. If you are taking up paracetamol which is 325 to 650mg, a 4-hour interval is a must. But must not exceed 4g in a day. Overdosage can lead to severe hepatotoxicity (liver toxicity).What are the symptoms of hepatotoxicity?

Symptoms includes nausea, vomiting and pallor. Some are non-specific or have only mild symptoms.

Paracetamol taken up in a safe dosage is detoxified in the liver, wherein acetaminophen binds with glutathione . In cases of overdosage, this action is not fully undergone. Glutathione is depleted because of the demand. Excess acetaminophen that is not bound with glutathione is accumulated in the liver, and the one which is responsible for the liver damage.

How is it tested?
It is tested through collection of patient's serum. Although acetaminophen is rapidly depleted in serum, we can predict the serum concentration through nomogram. Information such as known time is ingestion is needed. However, serum which is collected before 4hours of ingestion of paracetamol is not also recommended because it is still in process of absorption in the GIT( gastrointestinal tract), and thus it cannot be measured.

Reference method?

Quantitative measurement of acetaminophen is through the use of High-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).
Now, let's hear it from a real doctor.
Can i overdose on acetaminophen?

Although we know that this is safe, we must also take time to read more information in able to be more confident that we are taking up the right dosage. Not only in this medicine, but this rule complies to all.

Wednesday, July 21, 2010

To test or not to test???...

"Are you in favor in favor of drug testing before admission in school?"

If I am the one to be asked, I'll definitely say YES, I am 100% sure that I am in favor on this. Why do I have the guts? Because I am confident that I am free from any illegal drugs, I never took it and never came into my mind to try it. But let's try to make it fair, every situations has advantages and disadvantages. So here they are (this are only based on what I see and think)

- This can help to decrease the number of drug addicts among youth. Studies shows that addictions can be acquired through peer to peer interactions. If STUDENT A was using drugs and was not admitted to school, it will gain a higher chance that STUDENT B will not be influenced and will never be involved on that illegal intake.

- A person who is not admitted to school because he is a drug addict will lose his right to be properly educated.

Basically if there is a law implementing this, just so to stop worrying about how to be admitted on school, there is only one answer. And that is to SAY NO DRUGS NOW AND FOREVER.

Tuesday, July 6, 2010

Toxicology leads you to a healthy life

Before I discuss and state some experiences about toxicity let me discuss first what toxicology means. Toxicology is simply the study of substances that are introduced exogenously inside the body. These exogenous substances may be medicines that we regularly take up for the therapeutic benefit of our own body that may often become deleterious if the intake is abused or not monitored well.

For easier understanding, let’s use some words that can be attributed with toxicology that is more familiar and often used or heard. These includes poisoning, prohibited drugs and carcinogenic.

Poison=dangerous. Actually, I never experienced being “poisoned” but, I heard a lot (overflowing) reminder from my mom about using toxic materials or liquids. Good thing she was there to lecture me about those and gave me an idea on what might happen. Several years ago, when we were watching news, there is a headline wherein there was a child that drunk the chemical that resembles clear water. This chemical was the one that is being used to clean silvers or jewelries. His father left the chemical that is placed on a glass and left it unattended on the table. The child can’t be blamed because he taught that it is just plain water. Unfortunately, after drinking the chemical the child died. And I was like “yah my mom was so right about this” and the good part is that she just don’t remind me, instead she follows a general rule that all toxic or poisonous chemicals must be kept out of reach of children (in case I become too curious and play with them hehehe).

Here are some compiled news from inquirer that shows silver cleaners can cause death and states that it was also the third most commonly swallowed poison among children.

Other story was when I was in high school. We had a subject called “MAPEH” (H stands for health) wherein our minds were opened and many information where thrown to us about drug abuse. When I got home, I was so excited to discuss it with my father who was having a vacation leave and told him about how addictive it was and how it can affect normal thinking. And there he was nodding and agrees with all I say then suddenly pulled a cigarette and lighted it. And then I laughed and said “what’s the difference between a drug addict and a chain smoker?” and he produced his overacting laugh until it fades away and yet gave me no answer. And as I write this part, I wish he could read this because we never had to chance to discuss about the difference but grateful because we had great laughs. (*misses him so much)

Cigarette=carcinogenic=lung cancer. Benzyprene is the aromatic compound that is used in cigarette and this is known to be a potent carcinogen that has been implicated with lung cancer. Back to my hard headed father, we I mean they (mom and older sisters) force him to stop smoking. They used to sneak and keep the stack of cigarettes (he used to buy cartons of cigarette abroad before he comes home) around the house. And me? Of course I wanted him also to stop, but when we are the only ones who are left in the house, he uses his super begging power for me to reveal even one pack of cigarette and his super hypnotizing power for me to buy him a cigarette and an overwhelming “thank you” from him after the favor has been done. Then I came to realize that my father was so addicted to cigarette although he was aware of the consequences that he might get from smoking. And as time passes by when he came home for good, he learned to regulate his cigarette intake, from 1 pack a day to half pack a day. That was, for us, a great improvement. My father has regular medicines for his heart, and maybe his smoking vise added to his complications. 4 months after he resigned abroad, he died because of heart attack. Of course it was hard for us, be we just looked in the bright side and said “at least God gave us time to be with him for four months straight, and let Him die here beside us”.

And now I have:

Two words for the smokers “Quit NOW”

And two words for those who want to try “Wag nalang” J

Drugs= curved life path. I have a cousin who WAS addicted to marijuana. There economic status, well I can say was below middle. Wherein there daily salaries are just enough for the day. If I am not mistaken, he was around 20’s when he abused drugs. Then his parents were suspecting, why does there chickens and some goats are missing, then they found out that my cousin was selling them for marijuana. Marijuana is a mixture of cut, dried, and ground portions of the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. Well, it did not took long for his parents to find out, and as soon as they found out that he was using prohibited drugs, they entered him to a rehabilitation center wherein he stayed there for a few months and got better. As of now, he is living a good life with his own family and learned from his mistakes.


Two words for the drug addicts “Quit NOW”

And two words for those who want to try “Wag nalang” J

Tuesday, June 8, 2010

Pisano Test

Pisano method is an ultraviolet spectrophotometry which is used in the spectrophotometric assay of metanephrines in diagnosing excess catecholamine in urine.

What kind of urine specimen is recommended?

24- hour urine can be collected. A random urine specimen may be applicable but it may not be accurate as to the representation of the total catecholamine secretion for the day. Proper specimen collection must be observed and the sample container must be light and opaque and must contain 10mL of 6N HCl fo preservation of catecholamine metabolites present. In 24-hour urine specimens, the volume is measured and a partial amount is used for assays. Specimens for assays can be frozen until it is ready for testing.

What are other assays aside from spectrophotometric assay can be used in the diagnosis of urinary metanephrines?

Fluorometry, gas chromatography, immunoassay, and radioenzymatic methods.

How is spectrophotometer assay done and what is the role of Pisano method?

"The spectrophotometric assay for the metanephrines is performed by extraction and then subsequent oxidation of the compounds to form vanillin which can be measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry" -John Bernard Henry, 19th Ed.

Sunday, May 23, 2010

Clinical Chemistry Blog Notes 26B

As I did some research over books and some references, it is always stated that most hormones are essential to development and health. Hormone is a chemical substance produced by certain glands and tissues of an organism, and affecting the activities of other parts of the organism.

In humans, hormones are the secretions of ductless glands and certain tissues of other organs. They regulate metabolism, the growth of the body and the activity of it's organs.

Below is a list of some hormones:

Insulin - this hormones is excreted by the pancreas. Insulin is produced by groups of tiny cells called islets of Langerhans. It controls the metabolism of sugar and lack of insulin causes diabetes mellitus.

Thyroxin- this hormone is excreted by the thyroid gland. Thyroxin is the one that regulates the metabolism. A lack of thyroxin in children can cause malnutrition and cretinism.

Adrenaline (or epinephrine) and Hydrocostisone (or cortisol)- this hormones are excreted by the adrenal glands. Adrenaline is the one which gives us extra energy in time of stress by stimulating the heart. During emergencies, this is the one that is stimulated that is why it is possible for us humans to carry heavy things. And as we calm down, we lose this energy.

Estrogen and Progesterone- produced by the ovaries.

Did you know that hormones is not only found on us humans but also in plants and and other animals? Well this is actually true, and too much or too little of any hormone will cause disease and disturbance in a plant or animal.
The two types of feedback mechanism is non steroidal and steroidal mechanism.
1. Non steroidal
The cell surface reacts with the receptor hormone, adenylate cyclase, at the cell membrane. The cobination of the two will produce chemical process (e.g contraction)

2. Steroidal
Steroid hormone will not be reacting in the cell surface. Instead, before the entry into the cell, steroid hormone and receptor hormone must meet and must form a molecule. This molecule formed will become smaller and smaller as they travel. However, if this molecule entered the nucleus, biochemical changes may occur.

Wednesday, May 12, 2010

Clinical Chemistry Blog Notes 26B

It took me several minutes before I finally had the urge to write in this empty white box. :D And the reason is: this is the first time I'll write a blog with personal touch and thoughts :D.

Summer vacation is finally over. Goodbye summer wave and hello lectures+experiments+assignments. And as for our first assignment in CC03: Define Endocrinology, Toxicology and Drug Testing.

Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine gland and substance they secrete which hormones. Hormones is a chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs. Through this topic we'll able to answer our questions regarding hormonal imbalances, menstruation, adam's apple, growth and several more because this is more likely related to some of our body changes.

Toxicology is the study of poisonous materials and their effects on living organisms with emphasis on classification, action, regulations on dispensing and use, precautions, general purification, isolation and quantitative estimation in biological specimens which is important for us medical technologists.

Drug Testing
This is the one that I am more familiar with. Drug test is a technical analysis of a biological specimen. Sample specimens may be urine, hair, blood etc. When I am applying for my driver's license I am obliged to attend drug testing. This is to determine whether I was taking up prohibited drugs. As far as I remember, the test was specific for Methamphetamine and others which i already forgot lol. :D

This semester, I am hoping to know a lot more regarding Endocrinolgy, Toxicology and Drug Testing. So that I'll be able to add more informations to share. :D

Tuesday, December 1, 2009

Electrophoresis method for phosphorus # 27-10

Electrophoresis method for Phosphorus

Electrophoresis is defined as the motion of dispersed particles similar to a fluid connected to an electric field.

As I read some articles regarding electrophoresis methods for phosphorus, I was able to see that capillary electrophoresis is the most common method used for this element. Capillary electrophoresis a.k.a capillary zone electrophoresis is a method wherein we are able to separate ions through their charge, frictional force and mass. And also for separating and quantitating the various inorganic phosphorus oxo anions which are the phosphates, phosphites and their oligomers. It can also be used to determine small- phosphorus containing compounds in environmental and agricultural samples.

Overall, capillary electrophoresis is used to determine, detect and separate phosphorus from other constituents.